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Glossary

ARPU (average revenue per user) is average revenue per one user per month.

В2С (business-to-consumer) is commercial relationship between an organization and a private ‘end’ user.

В2В (business-to-business) is commercial relationship between an organization and other enterprises.

B2G (business-to-government) is commercial relationship between an organization and authorities and other state institutions.

В2О (business-to-operator) is commercial relationship between telecom operators.

CAGR is a compound annual growth rate.

CDN (content delivery network) is a content delivery network representing geographically distributed network infrastructure that enables serving and distributing content to end users on the Internet.

CRM (customer relationship management) is a system of client relations management representing application software to raise the level of sales, optimize marketing and improve client services through storing the information about clients and the history of relations with them, establishing and improving business processes and further analysis of results.

DDoS attack (distributed denial of service) is a hacker attack on a computer system in order to cause its failure: an attacked machine receives multiple requests, which it is not able to process.

DWDM (dense wavelength-division multiplexing) is a technology of dense wavelength-division multiplexing that enables to transmit a large number of channels via optical fibre.

FCF (free cash flow) is calculated based on cash flow statement as net cash provided by operating activities less CAPEX, plus proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets (according to IFRS).

FTTB (fibre to the building) is a technology of building the access network, when optical fibre cable is laid up to the building.

3G (third generation) means the technologies of mobile communication of the 3rd generation, which combine both high-speed mobile access with Internet services, and the technology of radio communication, which creates a data transfer channel.

4G (fourth generation) means mobile communication of the 4th generation that enable data transfer with a speed exceeding 100 Mb/s and 1 Gb/s to mobile and fixed-line subscribers, respectively.

GPON (gigabit passive optical network) is a technology of passive optical networks providing a broadband access to the Internet at a speed up to 1 Gb/s.

IP/MPLS (multiprotocol label switching) is a technology of fast packet switching in multiprotocol networks while using labels.

IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a technology of digital television in data transfer networks using the IP protocol, i.e. delivery of TV channels to the viewer via the Internet (interactive television).

IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is a possibility to use cloud infrastructure for independent control of processing and storage resources, networks and other fundamental computer resources (for instance, a user can install and start random software, which can comprise operating systems, platform and application software).

PaaS (Platform as a Service) is a model to provide cloud computing, when a user is granted an access to use of the information technological platforms: operating systems, database management systems, connectivity software, design and test tools available from the cloud provider.

SaaS (Software as a Service) is one of forms of cloud computing, a service model, when subscribers are provided with ready application software fully served by the provider.

M&A (mergers and acquisitions) means transactions of companies’ merger or acquisition.

NFV (network functions virtualization) is a concept of network architecture offering usage of the technology of virtualization of network points’ functions as integral components, which can be connected together or linked into a chain to create telecommunication services.

OIBDA (operating income before depreciation and amortization) is operating income before depreciation and amortization.

OTN (optical transport network) is equipment of a transport network providing multiplexing, switching and backing up of optical channels.

ОТТ (over the top) is delivery of video signal from a content provider to the user’s device via data transfer networks without direct contact with a communication operator.

VPN (virtual private network) is a technology that enables providing one or several network connection (a logical network) over another network (e.g. the Internet).

SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) is a system of data transfer based on synchronizing time of a transmitter and a receiver.

SDN (software-defined network) is a network of data transfer, where the level of network control is separated from data transfer devices and is programmed.

SLA (service level agreement) is a formal agreement between an electronic service client and its provider containing service description, rights and obligations of the parties and the agreed level of quality of this service.

VAS (value added services) means services with an essential added value.

FOCL is a fibre optic communication line. Web videoconferencing is videoconferencing via any browser without the installation of special equipment and software.

Web audioconferencing is audioconferencing via any browser without the installation of special equipment and software.

Geodata is a spatial database organized in the platform of special purpose software that enables storing, accumulating and processing (including dimensional analysis) all components of spatial data in the form of logically uniform database.

S&A means subsidiaries and affiliates.

Industrial Internet (IIoT, Industrial Internet of Things) is a concept of commuter network of physical items (‘things’) equipped with built-in technologies for the interaction with each other or with external environment.

KPI means key performance indicators.

IFRS means the international standards of financial statements.

"Last mile" is a channel connecting end (client) equipment with the provider’s access point (communication provider).

RAS means the Russian accounting standards.

Broadband Internet Access is a broadband access to the information and telecommunication Internet.

USE is Uniform State Exam.

FAS Russia is Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation.

FTS Russia is Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation.

DPC is a data processing centre.